Haloed Bane

Reading Eight: Transformations

Ashuri transliteration

So far we have been using a transliteration of Horgothic via Roman letters, but of course other alternatives are possible. Let's look at a straightfoward transliteration based on the Ashuri script, used to write Hebrew and Aramaic.

Teivan Letters
(with Variants)
Ashuri
Equivalent
Notes
h 3 ה הּ The dagesh is used to produce the teneva forms of letters. The standard Teivan abbreviations are allowed, e.g. of the conjunction he (הּ in Ashuri.)
k כ
K כְר The shva marks the first letter in a consonant cluster.
q כְל
g ג
G גְר
Q גְל
j י Yod can also represent /i/, in which case it will not have a nikud vowel point. Note that the adjectival ending -ia is spelled יא (/ja/ would be יַ.)
l ל
r ר
s 5 צ /a/ is always spelled out so there is no need for a 5 equivalent. The final form of tsadi is reserved for the plural marker (see below).
z ז
x ש Shin is always dotless.
c ט
t 4 ת As with tsadi above, there is no need for a second form here.
T תְר
d ד
f ף Final pe is used for Horgothic /f/.
F ףְל
v 6 ו וּ
V וְר
W וְל
p פ
P פְר
b ב
B בְר
n 2 נ נּ
m M מ מּ
N ן Final nun is used for Horgothic /ɲ/.
The letter bet is used below to show how the vowels are represented.
a בַ
A בַי Yod cannot be confused for a /j/ here because yod as /j/ will always have a vowel point.
w בַו What goes for yod goes for vav here with regard to /v/.
e בֵ Although Horgothic vowels are all short, tsere is used here instead of the phonetically more suitable segol because it is faster to write. Segol is saved for another purpose, see below.
E בֵי
i בִ
y בִא Alef also serves as a vowel companion, in which case it always carries a vowel point.
Y בִו Notice that vav stands for /o/ here, instead of /u/ as in /au/.
o בֹ
O בֹי
u 1 בֻ The preposition u in Horgothic (Teivan 1) is simply written with the alef vowel companion in Ashuri: אֻ
U בֻי
S ץ
H H ע בֶ Ayin serves as consonantal silent letter whereas segol serves as vocalic silent letter. Example: Malsain in Teivan is mlsaHinH, in Ashuri מַלצַעִנֶ
7 א

Ban Imperial Script

Until very recently our agent Sandalion used to run future simulations to help us strategize for contact. Her most elaborate simulations took Earth all the way up to the 25th century. In her preferred family of scenarios, China splits into a northern and a southern state. The south is held by a monarchy called Ban Devi, with its leadership concentrated in the Fujian-Taiwan area. Sandalion arranged things so that the Ban adopt an artificial language created by a Buddhist scholar from Xiamen City named Siong (). Siong repurposes the Hokkien lexicon by applying brand-new grammar rules based on his esoteric teachings. That grammar and logic happen to be Horgothic. Sandalion's quixotic idea was to have this fact be a secret weapon, in case Incudea ever needed to reveal itself on Earth (Earth still knows nothing of us in these scenarios) and have a ready ally, because surely Ban Devi would consider it a great sign from heaven that the alien tongue obeyed the same principles as Master Siong.

Ban flag

The Ban flag highlights the six directions, not north-south-east-west-zenith-nadir, but north-south-northeast-southeast-northwest-southwest, which is the standard model in the universe of Belklaun.

Hokkien syllables (leaning toward the Taiwanese variety) often have the same pronunciation in Ban, though the tonal system is rather different. Even in the pronunciation of consonants and vowels, there are some systematic divergences. Nasal consonants are denasalized and new finals are added to their syllables (/l/, /r/). Aspirated initials are replaced by r-clusters (Hokkien /ph/, /th/, and /kh/ become /pr/, /tr/, and /kr/. Initial /ŋ/ is replaced by /r/, /dz/ by /ʝ/. Sandalion clearly engineered Ban to be more familiar to Horgothic speakers, at times catering more specificially to Glowgem dialect speakers. Thus, an initial /u/ in Hokkien diphthongs is supposed to become /v/, but the better part of Ban speakers produce a /w/ instead, as would Glowgemites.

This table presents the licit syllables in POJ-romanized Hokkien and Ban (pre-sandhi for the latter). Whenever Ban differs from Hokkien that syllable is placed on a second line.

b ch
z [ts]
chh
ch [tʃ]
g h j
[ʝ]
k kh
kr
l m n ng
r
p ph
pr
s t th
tr
a a ba cha
za
chha
cha
ga ha ka kha
kra
la ma na nga
ra
pa pha
pra
sa ta tha
tra
a
aⁿ
ar
aⁿ
ar
chaⁿ
zar
chhaⁿ
char
haⁿ
har
kaⁿ
kar
khaⁿ
krar
phaⁿ
prar
saⁿ
sar
taⁿ
tar
thaⁿ
trar
aⁿ
ar
ah ah bah chah
zah
chhah
chah
hah kah khah
krah
lah nah pah phah
prah
sah tah thah
trah
ah
ahⁿ
ash [aʃ]
hahⁿ
hash
sahⁿ
sash
ahⁿ
ash
ai ai bai chai
zai
chhai
chai
gai hai kai khai
krai
lai mai nai ngai
rai
pai phai
prai
sai tai thai
trai
ai
aiⁿ
ail
aiⁿ
ail
chaiⁿ
zail
haiⁿ
hail
kaiⁿ
kail
khaiⁿ
krail
phaiⁿ
prail
taiⁿ
tail
aiⁿ
ail
ak ak bak chak
zak
chhak
chak
gak hak kak khak
krak
lak pak phak
prak
sak tak thak
trak
ak
am am cham
zam
chham
cham
gam ham kam kham
kram
lam sam tam tham
tram
am
an an ban chan
zan
chhan
chan
gan han kan khan
kran
lan pan phan
pran
san tan than
tran
an
ang ang bang chang
zang
chhang
chang
gang hang kang khang
krang
lang pang phang
prang
sang tang thang
trang
ang
ap ap chap
zap
chhap
chap
hap kap khap
krap
lap sap tap thap
trap
ap
at
as
at
as
bat
bas
chat
zas
chhat
chas
hat
has
kat
kas
khat
kras
lat
las
pat
pas
sat
sas
tat
tas
that
tras
at
as
au au bau chau
zau
chhau
chau
gau hau kau khau
krau
lau mau nau ngau
rau
pau phau
prau
sau tau thau
trau
au
auh chhauh
chauh
kauh lauh mauh nauh phauh
prauh
tauh auh
e e be che
ze
chhe
che
ge he ke khe
kre
le me ne nge
re
pe phe
pre
se te the
tre
e
eⁿ
er
eⁿ
er
cheⁿ
zer
chheⁿ
cher
heⁿ
her
keⁿ
ker
kheⁿ
krer
peⁿ
per
pheⁿ
prer
seⁿ
ser
teⁿ
ter
theⁿ
trer
eⁿ
er
eh eh beh cheh
zeh
chheh
cheh
heh keh kheh
kreh
leh meh neh ngeh
reh
peh seh teh theh
treh
eh
ehⁿ
esh [eʃ]
hehⁿ
hesh
khehⁿ
kresh
ehⁿ
esh
ek
ik
ek
ik
bek
bik
chek
zik
chhek
chik
gek
gik
hek
hik
kek
kik
lek
lik
pek
pik
phek
prik
sek
sik
tek
tik
thek
trik
ek
ik
eng
ing
eng
ing
beng
bing
cheng
zing
chheng
ching
geng
ging
heng
hing
keng
king
kheng
kring
leng
ling
peng
ping
pheng
pring
seng
sing
teng
ting
theng
tring
eng
ing
i
i bi chi
zi
chhi
chi
gi hi ji ki khi
kri
li mi ni pi phi
pri
si ti thi
tri
i
iⁿ
ir
iⁿ
ir
chiⁿ
zir
chhiⁿ
chir
hiⁿ
hir
kiⁿ
kir
khiⁿ
krir
siⁿ
sir
tiⁿ
tir
thiⁿ
trir
iⁿ
ir
ia ia chia
zia
chhia
chia
gia hia jia kia khia
kria
mia nia ngia
ria
sia tia ia
iaⁿ
ial
iaⁿ
ial
chiaⁿ
zial
chhiaⁿ
chial
hiaⁿ
hial
kiaⁿ
kial
piaⁿ
pial
siaⁿ
sial
tiaⁿ
tial
thiaⁿ
trial
iaⁿ
ial
iah iah chiah
ziah
chhiah
chiah
giah hiah kiah khiah
kriah
liah piah phiah
priah
siah tiah thiah
triah
iah
iahⁿ
iash
hiahⁿ
hiash
iahⁿ
iash
iak chhiak
chiak
khiak
kriak
piak phiak
priak
siak tiak iak
iam iam chiam
ziam
chhiam
chiam
giam hiam jiam kiam khiam
kriam
liam siam tiam thiam
triam
iam
ian ian bian chian
zian
chhian
chian
gian hian jian kian khian
krian
lian pian phian
prian
sian tian thian
trian
ian
iang iang chiang
ziang
chhiang
chiang
giang hiang jiang khiang
kriang
liang piang phiang
priang
siang iang
iap iap chiap
ziap
chhiap
chiap
giap hiap jiap kiap khiap
kriap
liap siap tiap thiap
triap
iap
iat
ias
iat
ias
biat
bias
chiat
zias
chhiat
chias
giat
gias
hiat
hias
jiat
jias
kiat
kias
khiat
krias
liat
lias
piat
pias
phiat
prias
siat
sias
tiat
tias
thiat
trias
iat
ias
iau iau biau chiau
ziau
chhiau
chiau
giau hiau jiau kiau khiau
kriau
liau miau niau ngiau
riau
piau phiau
priau
siau tiau thiau
triau
iau
iauⁿ
iaul
iauⁿ
iaul
iauⁿ
iaul
iauh hiauh khiauh
kriauh
ngiauh
riauh
iauh
ih bih chih
zih
chhih
chih
khih
krih
mih nih pih phih
prih
sih tih thih
trih
ih
im im chim
zim
chhim
chim
gim him jim kim khim
krim
lim sim tim thim
trim
im
in in bin chin
zin
chhin
chin
gin hin jin kin khin
krin
lin pin phin
prin
sin tin thin
trin
in
io io bio chio
zio
chhio
chio
gio hio jio kio khio
krio
lio pio phio
prio
sio tio thio
trio
io
ioh ioh chioh
zioh
chhioh
chioh
gioh hioh kioh khioh
krioh
lioh sioh tioh ioh
iok iok chiok
ziok
chhiok
chiok
giok hiok jiok kiok khiok
kriok
liok siok tiok thiok
triok
iok
iong iong chiong
ziong
chhiong
chiong
giong hiong jiong kiong khiong
kriong
liong siong tiong thiong
triong
iong
ip ip chip
zip
chhip
chip
hip jip kip khip
krip
lip sip ip
it
is
it
is
bit
bis
chit
zis
chhit
chis
hit
his
jit
jis
kit
kis
khit
kris
pit
pis
phit
pris
sit
sis
tit
tis
it
is
iu iu biu chiu
ziu
chhiu
chiu
giu hiu jiu kiu khiu
kriu
liu niu piu siu tiu thiu
triu
iu
iuⁿ
iul
iuⁿ
iul
chiuⁿ
ziul
chhiuⁿ
chiul
hiuⁿ
hiul
kiuⁿ
kiul
khiuⁿ
kriul
siuⁿ
siul
tiuⁿ
tiul
iuⁿ
iul
iuhⁿ
iush [iuʃ]
iuhⁿ
iush
hiuhⁿ
hiush
iuhⁿ
iush
m
oem [oem]
m
oem
hm
hoem
m
oem
mh
oep [ɤp]
hmh
hoep
mh
oep
ng
oeng [ɤng]
ng chng
zoeng
chhng
choeng
hng
hoeng
kng
koeng
khng
kroeng
mng
moeng
nng
noeng
png
poeng
sng
soeng
tng
toeng
thng
troeng
ng
oeng
ngh
oek [ɤk]
chhngh
zoek
hngh
hoek
phngh
proek
soek ngh
oek
o
[o]
o bo cho
zo
chho
cho
go ho ko kho
kro
lo po pho
pro
so to tho
tro
o
oⁿ
or [or]
oⁿ
or
hoⁿ
hor
koⁿ
kor
oⁿ
or

oe [ɤ]

oe
bo͘
boe
cho͘
zoe
chho͘
choe
go͘
goe
ho͘
hoe
ko͘
koe
kho͘
kroe
lo͘
loe
mo͘
moe
no͘
noe
ngo͘
roe
po͘
poe
pho͘
proe
so͘
soe
to͘
toe
tho͘
troe

oe
oa
ua
oa
va
boa
bua
choa
zua
chhoa
chua
goa
gua
hoa
hua
koa
kua
khoa
krua
loa
lua
moa
mua
noa
nua
poa
pua
phoa
prua
soa
sua
toa
tua
thoa
trua
oa
ua
oaⁿ
ual
oaⁿ
val
chhoaⁿ
zual
hoaⁿ
hual
koaⁿ
kual
khoaⁿ
krual
poaⁿ
pual
phoaⁿ
prual
soaⁿ
sual
toaⁿ
tual
thoaⁿ
trual
oaⁿ
ual
oah
uash
oah
vash
boah
buash
choah
zuash
chhoah
chuash
hoah
huash
joah
juash
koah
kuash
khoah
kruash
loah
luash
poah
puash
phoah
pruash
soah
suash
thoah
truash
oah
uash
oai
uai
oai
vai
hoai
huai
koai
kuai
khoai
kruai
soai
suai
oai
uai
oaiⁿ
uail
oaiⁿ
vail
choaiⁿ
zuail
hoaiⁿ
huail
koaiⁿ
kuail
soaiⁿ
suail
oaiⁿ
uail
oan
uan
oan
van
boan
buan
choan
zuan
chhoan
chuan
goan
guan
hoan
huan
koan
kuan
khoan
kruan
loan
luan
poan
puan
phoan
pruan
soan
suan
toan
tuan
thoan
truan
oan
uan
oang
uang
oang
vang
chhoang
zuang
oang
uang
oat
uas
oat
vas
boat
buas
choat
zuas
goat
guas
hoat
huas
koat
kuas
khoat
kruas
loat
luas
poat
puas
phoat
pruas
soat
suas
toat
tuas
thoat
truas
oat
uas
oe
ue
oe
ve
boe
bue
choe
zue
chhoe
chue
goe
gue
hoe
hue
joe
jue
koe
kue
khoe
krue
loe
lue
poe
pue
phoe
prue
soe
sue
toe
tue
oe
ue
oeh
uel
oeh
vel
boeh
buel
goeh
guel
hoeh
huel
koeh
kuel
khoeh
kruel
poeh
puel
phoeh
pruel
soeh
suel
oeh
uel
oh [oh] oh choh
zoh
chhoh
choh
hoh koh loh poh phoh
proh
soh toh thoh
troh
oh
o͘ h
oeh [ɤh]
mo͘h
moeh
o͘ h
oeh
ohⁿ
ol
ohⁿ
osh
hohⁿ
hosh
ohⁿ
osh
ok
[ok]
ok bok chok
zok
chhok
chok
gok hok kok khok
krok
lok pok phok
prok
sok tok thok
trok
ok
om
[om]
om som tom om
ong [oŋ] ong bong chong
zong
chhong
chong
gong hong kong khong
krong
long pong phong
prong
song tong thong
trong
ong
u u bu chu
zu
chhu
chu
gu hu ju ku khu
kru
lu pu phu
pru
su tu thu
tru
u
uh uh chuh
zuh
chhuh
chuh
khuh
kruh
puh phuh
pruh
tuh thuh
truh
uh
ui ui
vi
bui chui
zui
chhui
chui
gui hui kui khui
krui
lui mui pui phui
prui
sui tui thui
trui
ui
un un bun chun
zun
chhun
chun
gun hun jun kun khun
krun
lun pun phun
prun
sun tun thun
trun
un
ut
us
ut
us
but
bus
chut
zus
chhut
chus
hut
hus
kut
kus
khut
krus
lut
lus
put
pus
phut
prus
sut
sus
tut
tus
thut
trus
ut
uth
b ch chh g h j k kh l m n ng p ph s t th

Ban Tonal System and Sandhi

Tonal distribution in Ban follows the Hokkien dialects' system of seven separate tones, with the following contours:

  • Tone 1 = 33 (a)
  • Tone 2 = 45 (á)
  • Tone 3 = 21 (à)
  • Tone 4 = 5 (ah)
  • Tone 5 = 24 (â)
  • Tone 7 = 51 (ā)
  • Tone 8 = 2 (a̍h)

The Hokkien dialects feature a tonal sandhi, whereby all syllables in a prosodic unit except the last pick up new tones. Ban behaves quite differently: here the sandhi does not affect tones but phonemes (initials, vowels, finals, though only a portion of these), and the syllables affected are precisely the final ones in an unit, instead of those preceding them. The definition of such a sandhi unit in Ban is simple if you are familiar with Teivan Horgothic: the unit ends where the equivalent in Teivan would see a punctuation mark (pauses, etc.) or a space (i.e. right after a functional noun). If the last word in said unit is monosyllabic, it is the only one affected by sandhi; whereas if the last word is two or more syllables long, then the last two syllables are affected by sandhi. Interestingly, nouns used vocatively are not affected by sandhi. In the example below, we offer a sentence in English, Horgothic, and Ban (Romanized according to base non-sandhi forms with parentheses around each unit, followed by the proper Chinese characters, or hanju). The green syllables/characters are those susceptible to sandhi.

Klontein bled from the neck and down her outfit, her upper chest crushed.

Klontein vanjam dian jisui vuk pik buki, ha tanuno igokrainem.

qontEn vnjMdynjisU vukpikbuki, hatanuno 7igoKAneM.

(Króng-tin) (huel-ôem iû ām) (lo̍h-krí zong-pī,) (ki̍p i-heng) (jı̍p-i̍s-chùi.)

慷珍血萼由落起裝備、及伊胸乚碎

Sandhi effects the following phonemic changes, many of which include sounds not otherwise found in the Ban inventory:

  1. As for the initial consonants:
    • /n/ becomes /ny/
    • /p/ becomes /f/
    • /s/ becomes /x/, which is pronounced [ɕ]
    • /t/ becomes /d/
    • /sh/ is added when no initial consonant is present
  2. For the vowels:
    • /ia/ becomes /ai/, whereas /ai/ becomes /ie/
    • /ui/ becomes /io/, whereas /io/ becomes /ou/
    • /iu/ becomes /ue/, whereas /ue/ becomes /ei/
  3. There are two changes in the finals:
    • /s/ becomes /b/
      /p/ becomes /g/

We can now revisit our sample sentence and see how it would actually sound when spoken out loud. The blue syllables are those changed by sandhi, whereas the green ones remain the same because the rules don't affect them.

Króng-din huel-ôem iû shām lo̍h-krí zong-, ki̍p shi-heng jı̍p-shi̍s-chiò.

The characters with which the language is written are generally the traditional ones used in Taiwan today. Deviations can sometimes be explained by the alien (literally!) grammar involved, other times by more cultural or even whimsical reasons. Let's analyze the sample sentence once more.

慷珍血萼由頸落起裝備,及伊胸入乚碎。

  • 慷珍= the best I could do to render Klontein's name. Sandalion could do better.
  • 血萼= the second character here is the verbalizer, corresponding to Horgothic -m. In cases where the noun is abstract, the verbalizer is often omitted in speech and a small dot is put in place of the hanju when writing.
  • 落起= a compound of a direction and its opposite, a type peculiar to Ban, where the meaning is that of the first direction. When the term is to be compounded with another word, the second character drops out.
  • = Matching Horgothic uno, this term refers to the upper part of the chest only. The entire chest as such is krám ().
  • 入乚碎= The last character here is the core verb "to crush". The middle character is a transitivity switcher; an infix in Horgothic, it becomes a prefix in Ban. This is one of many preexisting hanju that are repurposed in Ban. As for the first character, it's the short version of the direction "into", the longer version being another pair-of-opposites compound (入出).

An Excerpt from Siong's Writings

We present below a few line's from Siong's work on the interplay between reality and fantasy. All pronunciations are given in their base forms.

To-zíng bōe’ is-á-la.

多種 慕゜ 一仔啦。

Translation: Multiplicity yearns for Unity.

Comment: With 慕゜ we have an example of a noun that doubles as a verb, something commonly seen in Chinese, but Ban orthography demands a mark of some sort be placed to mark the difference (here a sphere, but often apostrophes are employed as well). 一仔啦 is a calque of Horgothic shenerglar.

Sandhi: The sentence would be pronounced "Do-zíng bōe’ is-á-la." with only the first syllable changing through sandhi rules (to->do).


Hùn-huas-bûn ê lâng-zóng-hô iû tài kàu tài zok-zìng kuan-î kiāl.

奮發們 的 儂總和 由 代 到 代 作證 關於 件。

Translation: Humanity's efforts through the millennia testify to this fact.

Comment: 們 is the plural marker. Its pronunciation in speech (bûn) is reduced to a final geminate nn (a lingering "n", basically) when the preceding syllable ends in a vowel, to which it is attached ("gem" in Ban is , and the plural is pronounced pónn). 儂 means a human being specifically, whereas 人 is applicable to any sapient being, such as an alien.

Sandhi: I'll leave this line and the rest as practice for applying sandhi rules.


Lû is-á-la bōe’ to-zíng chái-kruá hē lú zìng-kuē: siâng iû guá-nn bas kám-kak-á ê sī-la ê is?

如 一仔啦 慕゜ 多種 能可 係 愈 證噲: 倽 由 我們 識 感覺仔 的 是啦 的 一?

Translation: That Unity yearns for Multiplicity might be harder to prove –who of us knows what it feels like to be One?–

Comment: 能可 stands for "may, maybe", whereas 可能 means "possibility". 係 and 是 are both copulas (Horgothic mar and me, respectively). 感覺 is a verb that can become a noun. 仔 is the nominalizer in these cases, and note: 1) 仔 cannot be omitted; 2) 仔 does not assimilate with the previous syllable as it happens in Hokkien (the only such syllable in Ban being the plural marker, as seen above).


Is-kuá hia̍k ōem, sū-hoe truân-kî-nn siōng-to lāu-siàu kuan-î zòng-á tek tiū (kap lái-lūn-bûn siōng-to siōng-kīn-siàu téng sián-mı̍h) zi-chî’ sīm zis ì.

一寡 或 毋、 似乎 傳奇們 最多 老肖 關於 創仔 菂 宙 (佮 理論們 最多 最近肖 頂 鮮物) 支持゜ 甚 這 意。

Translation: ...but the oldest mythologies of the creation of the universe, and our latest theories to boot, do seem to support that very idea.

Comment: 一寡 或 毋 is a calque of Horgothic brian vlis sath, which means "in any case, at any rate".

Here is the entire excerpt translated into Horgothic, from which you can glean just how Sandalion/Siong achieved her weird version of Chinese!

runkur kenonMxenerQr. herluS 2hYmanrpol dynjoler Tujoler sAgMranyelu. 7wlxenerQr kenonMrunkur lijemrbOBanu2donja; Fnd dynpuns guMpezoMa 2meQr 2xen. Byn Wisst, ntiMkiryS 7elbokodonranycyMa lasuva ]3sinseS 7elboundertermAnkukerU] bekjeM7ele7enaori.

A Horgothic Rosetta Stone

Here is a mock Rosetta Stone with several scripts for Horgothic all reading the same phrase (and pardon the poor taste, it wasn't I who penned it): Ena mar rindeti u has Likuil Kriavardata he Zeburraja tabiam, kanvior suvaia adom nui. The first script is Teivan, the second Zeburajan, the third is Teivan in the handwritten style of one of our team, the fourth is Arabos, the fifth is a Ban version of the line, and the sixth is in Ashuri script. Finally, the seventh script, running bottom-up on the margins, first right stack then left, is Dolentian Primitive.

Rosetta stone

“This is the exact spot where Earth surrendered to a Glowgemite and a Zeburaja and joined the universal empire.”


stop