Appendix One: Paradigms
Formation of Denominal Adjectives
The majority of Horgothic adjectives are derived from nouns by way of inflections. Each noun can potentially produce four different kinds of adjectives (three in the case of abstract nouns), termed possessional, similitudinal, possessional-similitudinal and relational. Possessional adjectives inflect differently depending on whether the noun is abstract or concrete, but in both cases convey the notion that the thing being qualified possesses said noun. Similitudinal adjectives denote that the thing qualified resembles the noun in question. Only concrete nouns can form similitudinals, and the endings for these adjectives are the same as the possesional endings for abstract nouns. Thus, for example, from ulash (happiness) and loi (ball), one can form the adjectives ulashter and loiter, meaning "happy" (literally, possessing happiness) and "ball-like, round," respectively. To possess a ball could be expressed by the possessional adjective of loi, which is loiri. The possessional-similitudinal denotes that the thing being qualified is like the same sort of thing as possessed by the noun. For example, the sentence "The Lowborn has a noble face," can be translated as Fijumir rum gundias taulunes. Here, taulunes is a possessional-similitudinal adjective derived from taulun, a noble person. Finally, the relational adjective denotes that the thing qualified pertains in some general way to the noun in question (including an equative relation of identity). English will often pair nouns together or compound to convey the same sense (e.g. tennis court, warzone).
Here is the noun abor (pirate) declined all four ways:
- shul aborter = a person resembling a pirate
- momba abori = a ship with pirates on board
- lor abores = a piratical soul (a soul that resembles the soul of a pirate)
- kumakins aborden = piratical acts, actions of piracy or performed by pirates
All but two dozen or so nouns form denominal adjectives according to the same rules, the inflections varying depending on the last letter of the plain noun. There are two special cases still considered regular by grammarians: nouns derived from verbs (which always end in -ma) and nouns with the abstract suffix -glar. Below is a full paradigm of the regular nouns per each ending. Below them I've included the paradigm for prepositions taking the so-called characteristic suffixes, which are similar to the adjectives (cf. Lesson Two). There are only two inflections - for prepositions ending in a vowel, and for those ending in a consonant. When a preposition is in characteristic form, the would-be adjective is compounded to the noun in question. For example, the phrase braur ulashter, "happy child" when incorporated into "the happy child's ball" becomes loi nur ulashbraur.
|→ Adj. Type
↓ Last Letter
- The suffix -ia is actually pronounced dia. The reason why that d is not written out in Incudean scripts like the Teivan is historical. Back at the beginning of the Second Dolentian War, certain religious authorities recommended that Incudea sacrifice that letter for the sake of victory. Although the war was lost, the letter was never brought back as a sign of respect for the loss of so many. Millennia late, there are several Incudean dialects which simply do not pronounce the letter, though it is considered correct to pronounce. Of course, beyond Incudea, all species pronounce the letter and spell it out when writing.
- Some of the suffixes for these denominal adjectives have "connective forms" (helharatunvino) when the adjective precedes another adjective. In particular, -r, -ter, -es, -men, -den, -nden become -re, -te, -ese, -me, -de, -nde. The characteristic prepositions do not have connective forms.
- Proper nouns ending in unusual consonants (th, ny, nd, ns) interact with the endings -ter, -i, -es, -den by forming the following: th: kter, ti, tes, kden; ny: nter, nyi, nyes, nden; nd: nter, ndi, ndes, nden; ns: nter, nzi, nzen, nden.
- In Incudea, it is a universal practice when it comes to Incula personal names to substitute the characteristic prepositional endings (represented by haus in the table above) for the standard adjectival endings. This oddity shows up most often in the possessional, e.g. the phrase "a Sinduin-like assassin" is rendered as chunion Sinduiner instead of the expected chunion Sinduinter. The practice is also inconsistently extended to nicknames, but always referring to Inculae only, not to any other species.
Irregular Denominal AdjectivesThere are 8 irregular declensions for denominal adjectives, as seen below:
|→ Adj. Type
↓ Model Noun
- The parentheses in the Type I and II paradigms indicate that these final vowels drop in certain cases. When the vowel remains it is included in the paradigm.
- The following connective forms are in use: morder→morde, ilkaren→ilkare, beiner→beine, albares→albarese, flores→florese, namines→naminese, hinomen→hinome, herdemen→herdeme, mores→morese, beines→beinese.
- Other Type I Nouns are belba, chiana, diksa, kosa, lacha, neda, siota, tara, vluina. Other Type III Nouns are tormi, varmi. The other Type IV Noun is mino. The other Type V Noun is jaune. The other Type VII Noun is mutar. Other Type VIII Nouns are faus, granvin, hagen, idan, lidel. terron is often incorrectly included in this group, in imitation of current Uperjenathi practice.
The overwhelming majority of Horgothic verbs end in -m and only conjugate in a few predictable ways (such dimensions as tense and aspect being conveyed by helping words like nui and jia). Aside from the basic form of the verb, there is a passive form (infix -tu-, only for transitive verbs), an optative form (infix -hai-), and for many verbs, a secondary form (infix -ain-, sometimes -an-) which switches the transitivity of the original verb (e.g. from X acham = "X moves", to X achainam Y, to "X moves Y".) Note that even if the basic form of a verb is intransitive and the secondary form is transitive, the passive is formed out of the basic form and not the secondary (see dahuim below). In the case of optative passives or optatives from secondary forms, the optative infix always comes last (-tuhai-). Below are a few example of such regular verbs:
|Basic Form||Passive Form||Optative Form||Secondary Form||Derivates|
|baim (come, comes)||***||baihaim (may X come)||***||***|
|nasam (bless)||nasatum (be blessed)||nasahaim (may X bless)||***||nasatuhaim (may X be blessed)|
|dahuim (bend itself/oneself)||dahuitum (be bent)||dahuihaim (may X bend itself/oneself)||dainahuim (bend X)||dahuituhaim (may X be bent), dainahuihaim (may X bend Y)|
|selham (stretch X)||selhatum (be stretched)||selhahaim (may Y stretch X)||sanelham (stretch itself/oneself)||selhatuhaim (may X be stretched), sanelhahaim (may Y stretch itself/oneself)|
The verb zum has the peculiarity that it takes a vowel e- when it follows a word ending in a consonant. This does not occur at the beginning of a sentence, in compounds or when the word is modified in any way. Thus:
|Basic Form||Passive Form||Optative Form||Secondary Form||Derivates|
|zum/ezum (come, comes)||***||zuhaim (may X come)||***||***|
mahim, aisham, ram
A handful of verbs, when followed by predicate denominal adjectives may take "characteristic forms" instead of the noun in question becoming a denominal adjective (the situation is analogous to the prepositions as described above). This can only occur when the quality in question is possessional (for abstract nouns) or similitudinal (for concrete nouns). In other words, the characteristic forms of these verbs substitute for the inflections in the green columns of the first table on this page. Below are three of these five verbs with characteristic forms (jich and min belong to this group but are discussed separately):
|Basic Form||Passive Form||Optative Form||Secondary Form||Characteristic Form|
|mahim (continue X)||mahitum (be continued)||mahihaim (may Y continue X)||mainahim (continue)||mahish (remain X)|
|aisham (stop X)||aishatum (be stopped)||aishahaim (may Y stop X)||aishanam (stop itself/oneself)||dorrich (stop being X)|
|ram (seem)||***||rahaim (may X seem)||***||rash (seem X)|
This verb, with the general meaning of taking or obtaining, has a characteristic form and is also irregular in the usual forms. It is also irregular when it comes to nominalization via the suffixes -a, -glar, -ir/-chir, being replaced with one of two verbs, depending on whether the more active (take) or more passive (receive) sense is meant. There is no secondary form.
|Basic||Passive||Optative||Characteristic||Suffixed -a||Suffixed -glar||Suffixed -ir/-chir|
|jich (get, take X)||jitum (be taken)||jihaim (may Y get, take)||rich (get, become X)||active: tiama||passive: onjima||active: tianglar||passive: onjinglar||jir (taker, receiver)|
Meaning "to be", this is the most unusual of Horgothic verbs. The "dictionary form" of the verb is not its most common form (i.e. me) but its clause-final form (see below). The verb takes completely different forms depending on tense (so that tense helping words become unnecessary) as well as in the optative. In the imperfect past and the optative, the verb form is the same as the helping verb and the suffix used regularly in each occasion respectively. The verb also has a separate form when it appears at the end of a clause or sentence. There are no passive or secondary forms. Each of the verb's six basic forms has a corresponding characteristic form, which is triggered not only by a predicate adjective but by a direct object with a qualifying (would-be) denominal adjective, analogously to what happens with prepositions.
- The clause-final forms override the specific tense forms, so that they take the usual helping words to denote tense (by themselves, they are assumed to be in the present tense). The clause-final basic optative is mehai and the clause-final characteristic optative is marhai (the optative infix becomes a suffix).
- Even in the case of a verb phrase when a helping verb follows the main verb, as long as the phrase is at the end of a clause the clause-final form is employed. Thus: tuk langia min vas, not tuk langia vas or tuk langia me vas.
- The nominal form with suffix -a is melisa ("essence") and the -glar form is meglar ("being").